I have been noticing a lot of volume swings recently and after I did some digging I found some Qobuz titles that are playing at the default setting (no loudness info present)
The same titles on tidal play at the proper level according to the data.
I can see that the data is not there (or not being read) by changing the fallback level and the track will play back at that auto leveling number (i.e. changing auto leveling fallback from -2db to -3db will change the Qobuz version to -3db but will have no effect on the tidal version which is “correctly” playing at -4db)
Not sure if it is only on Qobus titles, but those are the ones I found.
Rock>allo usbridge>Khadis Tone Board (all wired)